19th Century Art on Medicine: “Homeopathy looks at the horrors of Allopathy”

 

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Homeopathy looks at the horrors of Allopathy, by Alexander Beideman (1857) (Image via Wikimedia Commons)

“Homeopathy looks at the horrors of Allopathy” — an allegorical painting by Russian artist Alexander Beideman, painted in 1857.

The allegorical image was created by Alexander Beydeman in Munich in 1857. According to the homeopath Nicholas Gabrilovich, the painting was commissioned by his father, Eugene Gabrilowitsch, who at that time studied in Munich.

“The positive pole of the scene” is located in the right part of the picture. In the background an allegory of soaring in the clouds Homeopathy. In front of her in a red cloak,  the god of medicine Aesculapius holding a symbol of medicine snake in the right hand. His left hand raised in anger and indignation. Behind him,  the goddess Athena who protects the sciences and shadowy Jupiter-like figure. At the right edge of the canvas is the German physician Samuel Hahnemann, the founder of homeopathy. Goddess of Justice is holding a balance and flaming sword in the background. I can only guess who is the winged child with a flame on his head (god of light Apollo?) and I cannot even guess who is the half-hidden woman.

All gods and heroes look with disapproval and indignation at associated with allopathy (modern medicine) “negative pole,” located on the left side of the picture where doctors mistreat a patient. One of them is sawing off the patient’s  leg, two other filling an enormous spoon with the medicine intending to shove it into the patien’d moth. The third MD is prizing the patient’s mouth open to receive the medicine under duress. In the corner, black-clad doctors congregate.

In the foreground, a doctor attaches leeches to the patient lower arm and belly – a popular universal remedy and one of the very few medicines available to pre-modern conventional doctors. The figure of Death is waiting for patient’s demise in the doorway. Patient’s wife sobbing and crying children depicted in the lower left corner.

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«The Alchemist Discovering Phosphorus» (1771).

Let’s compare the picture with painted a century earlier Joseph Wright’s. Gone is the divine inspiration in form of light beam. It’s replaced by Roman gods and a saint – Homeopathy founder. Gone is the lonely, hermit-like figure of scientist replaced by the group of untrustworthy-looking black-clad group of men. Gone is the uplifting harmony of Enlightenment and it’s replaced by a black and white struggle.

“Homeopathy looks at the horrors of Allopathy” is a blatant propaganda via 19th-century medium – painting.

Note: I used my translation of Russian Wikipedia article by  Adavyd  as a starting point for this post. CC-BY-SA 4.0

Sources:

  1.  DK (1 September 2016). Medicine: The Definitive Illustrated History. Dorling Kindersley Limited. pp. 107–110. ISBN 978-0-241-28715-6.
  2.  Государственная Третьяковская галерея — каталог собрания. 4: Живопись второй половины XIX века, книга 1, А—М. М.: Красная площадь. Я. В. БрукЛ. И. Иовлева. 2001. ISBN 5-900743-56-X.
  3.  Верещагина, Алла Глебовна (1958). “Александр Егорович Бейдеман” (Русское искусство: очерки о жизни и творчестве художников. Середина XIX века. ed.). Москва: Искусство. А. И. Леонов: 275—286.
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Birds do it, bees do it, even West Ham supporters do it

 

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Starling murmuration – an example of metachronal wave (Image by , via wikimedia Commons, CC-BY)

The world’s most renowned TV naturalist, Sir David Attenborough,  stands in a tropical forest. It’s dark. Suddenly a pinpoint of green light flashes underneath him, in the grass. Another flash, and another until they become too numerous to count. And then a pattern emerges – instead of random light flashes, which would create a steady background, like individual drops of rain create steady rain noise, the flashing fireflies synchronise. They create a rhythm, not unlike flashing traffic lights – or a lighthouse.

The synchronising of rhythms of individual insects is not limited to the fireflies. Perhaps less surprisingly, bees, the notorious collective, do it. Not the torch-like flashing but they shimmer in response to hornet approach.  So do starlings and fish that create mesmerising collective movements.

This type of movement is called metachronal rhythm or metachronal wave.  It’s produced by the sequential action (as opposed to synchronized) of structures such as cilia, segments of worms or legs. These movements produce the appearance of a travelling wave.

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A Mexican wave in Brazil. (Image by Danilo Borges via Wikimedia Commons, CC-BY 3.0)

It’s made by reacting and repeating the movement of your neighbours be it cilia  in a single cell organism or a human.  West Ham football supporters (and all the rest of them) succumb to a metachronal rhythm during a Mexican wave.

Literature:

Restless Creatures: The Story of Life in Ten Movements by Matt Wilkinson, 
  • ASIN: B01B39IRJ2

Yet another way to fleece a freelancer

I thought that digital freelance market like PeoplePerHour was bad – high volume of low paid gigs, but more importantly, the site takes up to 20% of your earnings, was bad.

Then there’s ClearVoice that promises medium range gigs but never delivers: unlike PPH, I never got one in half a year although some of the topics were very relevant.

But Contena takes the piss to the next level. They promise you gigs but only after you paid for subscription  – a measly 6 Monthly Payments of $199.  And most of the gigs are not that well paid, so “will work for subscription”.

What’s next, charging for using “freelancer (TM)” in your profile?

 

 

On origin of life: Packman goes forth

The line between life and non-life is becoming increasingly blurred.  We use biological molecules as molecular machines and even as a base of computing. On the other side of the spectrum, inorganic materials are constructed to display a cell-like behaviour.

But there’s a gap between these organisation levels and the most primitive living cells capable of matter and energy exchange with the environment (metabolism) and reproduction. Experiments that bridge the gap between complex inorganic and a living cell brings us closer to understanding how life came to be.

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Two consequent of optical microscopy images showing spontaneous transfer of silica colloidosome (red object, dotted line) into a magnetic droplet through a fatty acid stabilized aperture. Scale bar = 100 µm. (Image by University of Bristol).

Magnetite + organic solvent =

The authors of a recent article in Nature materials (Rodrigues-Arco et al. (2017), DOI: 10.1038/NMAT 4916) tried to bridge the gap between inorganic and organic. They mixed magnetic particles of iron oxide (magnetite) with droplets of an organic solvent and water. The particles with diameter of 500 ± 250 µm self-assembled on the surface of the solvent and were stable for several weeks.

Applying a magnetic field to the magnetic droplets opened the spheres along the surface, but they didn’t lose structural integrity and returned to the spherical shape. 

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Magnetite droplets open and close on   magnetic field application (Image by  Fr4zer  via Wikimedia Commons)

Increasing pH of the water phase to 10.5 and oleate concentration led to the creation of Matryoshka structures: parts of droplets remained covered by magnetic nanoparticles, and the rest of the structure was bordered by a monolayer of organic molecules.  At an optimal concentration, 3/4 magnetite with 1/4 water surface droplets resembled the hero of the classic game, Packman in appearance and behaviour.

 

Adding silica 

Under the same conditions, silica particles form smaller spheres, 50 ± 20 µm in diameter.  Silica colloids mixed with magnetic spheres do not interact in the absence of oleic acid. However, applying a magnetic field to the mix opened apertures in the magnetic spheres led to their self-propelled movement and random engulfment of colloidosomes. Only spheres with apertures – Packmen –  were able to move. The authors call this the engulfment ‘phagocytic-like behavior’ after ameba-like white blood cells that eat bacteria.

Particles movement explained by Marangoni effect – a movement due to surface tension gradient because of the uneven distribution of oleate on the surface of magnetic particles.  As the oleate gradient dissipate, the droplets moved only for several seconds. 

The authors proposed a model of ‘phagocytosis’. Non-magnetite covered surface Packman aperture covered by oleic acid molecules acts as a single layer proto-membrane. The silica colloidosomes have this layer as well. Fusion of molecular layers on the surface of Packmen aquatic opening and release of colloidosomes into the inner space creates semi-double membrane particles.

See the pictures and models on Nature web-site.   If by some miracle you have access to the original paper, do look into the supplemental videos of Packmen moving, Packmen ‘eating’, it’s mesmerising.

What is it good for

The authors propose using composite droplets mixtures for development of new material and nanoscale engineering approach, for example in microfluidics and delivering reagents for spatially controlled reactions. This sounds plausible and the author’s intention to mimic predation and chemical communication even more interesting.

However,  the scientists also call droplets ‘protocells’ and talk about ‘populations’ and their ‘collective behaviour’. In my opinion, this is a bridge too far. Life is characterised by sustained metabolism and ability of self-propagation. Magnetite and silica droplets display neither.  The reports about creating synthetic life is overhyping, the chronic disease of modern science.

О британской керамике/British ceramics – a very short introduction

 

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Европейская тарелка 1750 – 1800 года, найденная в Берлине

Итак, по просьбам трудящихся о британской керамике. До 17 века делали просто и топорно – из обожжённой коричневой глины с нанесёнными по верху слоями той же глины белого и красного цвета. Вида беларуских кувшинов для молока и соответствующего изящества. Тарелки были такой толщины, что ими запросто можно было убить человека.

С развитием морской торговли из Китая стал поступать фарфор. Белый, тонкий, изящный, с выписанными вручную картинами, выполненными разноцветной эмалью. Всякий уважающий себя англичанин должен был иметь такой фарфор, а соответствующих глин в Англии не нашли. Недаром в английском название керамики “china” совпадает с названием страны Китай – транслитерация старого центра производства керамики Ченгнан (ныне Цзиндэчжэнь).

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Китайский фарфор 17 века

В 19 веке после долгих, мучительных экспериментов научились делать нечто похожее, добавляя в местные глину костную муку. Плюс британцы научились делать переводные на керамику картинки, где с гравированной плиты рисунок переносился на глину автоматически, удешевив производство и увеличив стандартность.

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